Thursday, 5 July 2012

Agricultural Records in Britain:19th-century events


Continuing with some of the 19th century entries I found more interesting in the book Agricultural Records in Britain: A.D. 220 - 1977, by Stratton and Brown.

1800: ... food riots
1804: Imports of guano from Peru began
1807. The Irish potato crop was a partial failure
1815: Battle of Waterloo and the end of the Napoleonic wars
sulfate of ammonia reputed to have been first manufactured in England
1816: Much distress, and food riots
1817: The first Hereford cattle were exported to America
1818: In the autumn serious unemployment developed amongst the agricultural laborers of southern and eastern England, up to 60% being unemployed.
1830: About this date nitrate of soda began to be imported from Chile and Peru.
1833: In this year the first practical steam plow was produced.
1834: The Tolpuddle martyrs. A new poor Law act was passed.
1836: The combine harvester was patented in the USA. The tithe commutation act passed
1837: The agricultural settlement of New Zealand began.
1839: Foot-and-mouth disease first appeared in Britain causing a serious epidemic
1841: A severe epidemic of foot and mouth disease
Contagious pleuro-pneumonia of cattle made its first appearance in England.
1842: Patents for the production of super phosphate were granted to Lawes in England and to James Murray in Ireland on the same day, May 23.
1845: Severe epidemic of foot and mouth disease in autumn. The first year of potato blight.
1846: Prohibitions removed on the importation of cattle from overseas. Repeal of the corn laws.
1849: An Act of Parliament was passed enabling landowners to borrow money on the security of their estates for the purpose of financing long-term improvements of the property.
1850: Butter making churns worked by horses were in use.
1852: Severe epidemic of foot and mouth disease
1854: Rising corn prices due to cessation of imports of Russian wheat, owing to outbreak of Crimean war.
1859: The first practicable traction engine was introduced.
1860: The first reaping machine was introduced.
1865: An epidemic of rinderpest caused the death of over 253,000 animals, chiefly cattle.
1866: The rinderpest epidemic abated. Cattle diseases prevention act was rushed through parliament in only two weeks in February and was largely responsible for overcoming the disease.
1867: First consignments of tinned meat imported from Australia.
1869: Severe epidemic of foot and mouth disease (continues to 1870).
1871: Rinderpest was completely eradicated in Britain.
1872: Pleuro-pneumonia of cattle caused high mortality.Formation of national agricultural laborers union.
1873: At this date half the land in England and Wales was owned by as few as 2,250 proprietors averaging 7300 acres each.
1874: First shipment to Britain of refrigerated meat from the USA.
1875: First shipment of grain from the USA to England. Also first shipment of chilled beef from the USA. Barbed wire began to be used about this date
1879: In this year the first shipment of refrigerated beef from Australia arrived in Britain. Mechanical separators for milk were introduced.
1881 Cargo of chilled meat from Australia arrived at London.
1886: First measures for the control of anthrax enacted.
1890: Pleuro-pneumonia act came into operation in September and quickly reduce the instance of that disease.
1892: Passing of the contagious diseases in animals act giving power to slaughter disease animals, with compensation.
1895: First milking machines introduced.
1899: The Burger oil-driven tractor appeared.

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